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Remember the audience An important point to remember when writing a report is to think about your audience cheap prednisone 40mg without prescription allergy steroid shot. Have they the time to read through reams of quotations or are they interested only in conclu- sions and recommendations? Do you need to write using complex ter- minology or do you need to keep your language as simple as possible? A few researchers have come unstuck by including terms which it becomes obvious later they do no understand) best prednisone 20 mg allergy symptoms sore eyes. WRITTEN REPORT FORMAT Traditional written reports tend to be produced in the fol- lowing format. T|tle Page This contains the title of the report, the name of the re- searcher and the date of publication. If the report is a dis- sertation or thesis, the title page will include details about the purpose of the report, for example ‘A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Sheffield Hal- lam University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy’. If the research has been funded by a particular organisation, details of this may be included on the title page. Contents Page In this section is listed the contents of the report, either in chapter or section headings with sub-headings, if relevant and their page numbers. List of Illustrations This section includes title and page number of all graphs, tables, illustrations, charts, etc. Acknowledgements Some researchers may wish to acknowledge the help of their research participants, tutors, employers and/or funding body. HOW TO REPORT YOUR FINDINGS/ 135 Abstract/Summary This tends to be a one page summary of the research, its purpose, methods, main findings and conclusion. Introduction This section introduces the research, setting out the aims and objectives, terms and definitions. It includes a ratio- nale for the research and a summary of the report struc- ture. Background In this section is included all your background research, which may be obtained from the literature, from personal experience or both. You must indicate from where all the information to which you refer has come, so remember to keep a complete record of everything you read. If you do not do this, you could be accused of plagiarism which is a form of intellectual theft. When you are referring to a par- ticular book or journal article, find out the accepted stan- dard for referencing from your institution (see below). Methodologyand Methods In this section is set out a description of, and justification for, the chosen methodology and research methods. The length and depth of this section will depend upon whether you are a student or employee. If you are an undergrad- uate student you will need to raise some of the methodo- logical and theoretical issues pertinent to your work, but if you are a postgraduate student you will need also to be aware of the epistemological and ontological issues in- volved. If you are an employee you may only need to pro- vide a description of the methods you used for your research, in which case this section can be titled ‘Research 136 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS Methods’. Remember to include all the practical informa- tion people will need to evaluate your work, for example, how many people took part, how they were chosen, your time scale and data recording and analysis methods. The con- tent of this section will depend on your chosen methodol- ogy and methods. If you have conducted a large quantitative survey, this section may contain tables, graphs, pie charts and associated statistics. If you have conducted a qualitative piece of research this section may be descriptive prose containing lengthy quotations. Conclusion In this section you sum up your findings and draw conclu- sions from them, perhaps in relation to other research or literature. How- ever, if you are an employee who has conducted a piece of research for your company, this section could be the most important part of the report. It is for this reason that some written reports contain the recommendation section at the beginning of the report.

If you’re not computer savvy 10mg prednisone free shipping allergy symptoms upset stomach, we recommend that you enlist 73 Copyright © 2005 by Lynn Dannheisser and Jerry Rosenbaum generic prednisone 40 mg on-line allergy forecast vermont. Searching the Internet could turn up a unique and invaluable clue to your mystery malady. Before You Start For you library-card holders who are about to explore the Internet for the first time, understand first that there is no reason to be intimidated by the computer. Think of the Web as a library literally at your fingertips that is a little more challenging than the orderly world of library stacks. Although the Web may not be as rationally organized, it is without a doubt the biggest library you’ll ever find! It has been determined that it takes an average of five minutes and forty-two seconds on the Inter- net to find information relevant to specific health questions. We will suggest where to look and, more importantly, how to deter- mine if the information you turn up is accurate and trustworthy. We will give you nine questions you should ask yourself to assess the websites you propose to use and point out some pitfalls to avoid. A recent study found that physicians are increasingly encountering patients who have conducted online health searches. Some physicians even reported having changed their treatment protocols as a result of consumer requests. It is our opinion that physicians should be willing and able to help patients who want to research their own condition. The Agency for Health- care Research and Quality (AHRQ) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) echoes this view and recommends that every patient incorporate self- education into their treatment process. According to a 2003 Pew Internet & American Life Project, 80 per- cent of U. Two authors attempted to determine the prevalence of health-related searches on the Web. Medical Detective Work on the Internet 75 Another study published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry reports that a review of the most common search engines reveals that “the Internet has eliminated the distance barrier and has given the general public equal access to scientific articles, clinical trials, and guidelines. While you should be concerned or at least aware that potential harm can come from using poor-quality health information sometimes accessed on the Internet, studies have revealed very few cases of actual harm. The Montreal Children’s Hospital group, for example, in studying 1,512 abstracts on this topic found few reported cases of such harm. We found some that, among other things, promote the health benefits of drink- ing one’s own urine, oxygenation cures for AIDS, and use of colloidal silver as a cure for Gulf War syndrome. Knowing that such misinformation exists, researchers, organizations, and website developers are exploring alternative ways of helping people find and use the high-quality information that is available on the Internet. We believe if you follow these recommenda- tions and check the accuracy of any information you find with your physi- cian, then any risk is substantially minimized if not eliminated. But before we go into detail on the strategies that you can employ to make those distinctions, let’s begin with a basic overview of research on the Web—especially for those who are used to researching at a bricks-and-mortar library. It has infor- mation to help you evaluate the relevance, authority, and accuracy of the information you are seeking. Look at the site’s name or home page sponsor or organization (what comes after the “www”) the way you’d look at the publisher’s name on the library’s catalog card. If the information is found in an article, look at the author’s name and determine if he or she is an authority in the field. Has the article or information been peer reviewed, meaning has it been subjected to the scrutiny of a group of medical author- ities? Don’t forget to check the dates on the information provided and whether that information has been updated recently. This is the equivalent of checking the copyright date on a published book. You probably wouldn’t buy a health book (or check it out from the library) that’s twenty years old; you’d want the latest edition that contains the newest discoveries in diag- nosis and treatment. With these simple tips, the Internet can become your electronic reference librarian. Now let’s get into the actual medical investigation of your mystery mal- ady.

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Careful monitoring is essential for tetraplegic patients as cord oedema may result in an ascending level of paralysis prednisone 10 mg fast delivery allergy treatment coughing, further compromising respiration purchase 5 mg prednisone amex allergy symptoms nyc. Patients with tetraplegia or high level paraplegia may have paralysed abdominal and intercostal muscles and will be unable to cough effectively. Careful coordination and communication between physiotherapist and patient is vital for assisted coughing to be successful. Forced expiration may be achieved by the placement of the therapist’s hands on either side of the lower ribs or on the upper abdomen and ribs, producing an upward and inward pressure as the patient attempts to cough. Two people may be needed to treat the patient with a wide chest or tenacious sputum. Good support must be given to the paralysed joints and a full range of movement achieved. All paralysed limbs are moved passively each day to maintain a full range of movement. Loss of sensation means that joints and soft tissues are vulnerable to overstretching, so great care must be taken not to cause trauma. Provided that stability of the bony injury is maintained, passive hip stretching with the patient in the lateral position, and strengthening of non- paralysed muscle groups, is encouraged. Once the bony injury is stable patients will start sitting, preferably using a profiling bed, before getting up into a wheelchair. This is a gradual process because of the possibility of postural hypotension, which is most severe in patients with an injury above T6 and in the elderly. Mobilisation into a wheelchair Once a patient is in a wheelchair regular relief of pressure at the ischial, trochanteric, and sacral regions is essential to prevent the development of pressure sores in the absence of sensation. Patients must be taught to lift themselves to relieve pressure every 15 minutes. Paraplegic patients can usually do this without help by lifting on the wheels or arm rests of their wheelchairs. Tetraplegic patients should initially be provided with a cushion giving adequate pressure relief, but may in time be able to relieve pressure themselves. Right: patient seated incorrectly—“slumped” and with poor Wheelchair design has been much influenced by technology. Footplates are too high so there is excessive pressure on Lightweight wheelchairs are more aesthetically acceptable, the sacrum—a potential pressure problem. An appropriate wheelchair should be ordered once an assessment of the patient’s ongoing needs has been made. Rehabilitation Physical rehabilitation includes the following: • Familiarity with the wheelchair. The patient has to be taught how to propel the chair, operate the brakes, remove the footplates and armrests, and fold and transport the Figure 9. Having first lifted legs up on to the bed the patient then ground and turning the chair. Hand position is important to achieve a safe lift, avoiding contact with wheel. The length of time this takes will depend on the degree of loss of proprioception and on trunk control. Teaching these skills is only possible once confidence in balance is achieved and there is sufficient strength in the arms and shoulder girdles. The degree of independence achieved by each patient will depend on factors such as the level of the lesion, the degree of spasticity, body size and weight, age, mental attitude, and the skill of the therapist. Patients who cannot transfer themselves will require help, and patient and helpers will spend time with therapists and nurses learning the techniques for pressure relief, dressing, transferring, and various wheelchair manoeuvres. The level of independence achievable by tetraplegic patients is shown on page 55 in chapter 10. Close cooperation between physiotherapists and occupational therapists helps patients to reach their full potential. Chair and legs must be sideways for manoeuvrability in a limited space; and lifting carefully positioned to ensure a safe lift.

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A person with no outer hair cell force generation would suffer a profound hearing loss discount prednisone 20mg mastercard allergy medicine xy. Experiments on isolated cells have shown that such stimulation increases the Exploring human organs with computers 167 development of structurally complex biological systems 5 mg prednisone overnight delivery allergy rash on baby. Rather than attempting to replicate the existing organ of Corti, we could use finite- element models to predict the degree of mechanical amplification that could occur in regenerated hair-cell-based sensory epithelia, whose struc- ture and properties are quite different from those of the normal organ of Corti. Biological, carbon-based implementations of the simplified organ could be constructed using genetic techniques, both by manipulating the function of individual cells and controlling the way in which the develop- ing cells form the structure. The development process itself is amenable to finite-element analysis since it is driven mainly by local effects. The replacement organ could be constructed from cells obtained from the even- tual organ recipient, bypassing the problems associated with tissue rejec- tion during transplantation. Conversely, silicon-based implementations of the simplified model could be used in signal processing applications. For example, a silicon cochlea could form the front-end of a speech recognition system with a performance superior to any designed by an electrical engineer. It is highly likely that by the second decade of the new millennium silicon-based computing will have reached fundamental technological or physical limits. Computers will therefore be based on substrates that exhibit superior performance characteristics. Optoelectronic devices, which use substrates such as gallium arse- nide, permit the interconversion of electrons and photons. Hybrid comput- ers, which may already be available commercially by 2010, would use silicon for computation and photons for data transfer. The coherent mod- ulation of very-high-frequency light beams enables many high-capacity amount of force generation. But in the model, increased force generation leads to less basilar membrane motion. This paradoxical observation is the first that is consistent with the experimental observations that an increased amount of brain stimulation causes a decrease in cochlear amplification. The model behaviour is the direct result of the inflexion point at the outer edge of the outer pillar cell becoming much more pronounced. There are two motion peaks at the position of stimulation, one beneath the outer hair cells and the other at the outer edge of the outer pillar cell. This model response is consistent with experiments in which the cochlea is electrically stimulated, and comparison with Figure 9. KOLSTON signals to be combined onto a single beam, taking up little space and not interfering with cooling air. In, say, 20 years a fully optical computer would integrate lasers with optical modulators and photodetectors, and could be 1000 times faster than today’s computers. Carbon shares silicon’s electron valency, making it a viable semiconductor. But carbon’s real potential lies in its unrivalled ability to form compounds of very high molecular weight, which has made it suitable for the encoding and processing of the huge amount of informa- tion required to construct a human being. It is a logical step to consider uti- lizing DNA code and associated enzymes, which have been developed and refined over billions of years of evolution, to construct a carbon-based com- puter. Such a device could exist in a test-tube, into which DNA-like mole- cules would be placed containing the input data, and recombinant DNA techniques used to perform the processing function. A carbon-based computer would have several attractive characteristics: • Fast: trillions of strands of DNA would be processed in a single bio- chemical operation, so that a computation that would currently take one year to perform could be completed in one second. Taken together, these performance levels represent a million-fold improve- ment over present-day computers. This means that the current rate of exponential growth in computing power will be sustained for another half century if carbon-based computers were to become commodity items by 2050. It may then be feasible to implement a finite-element model of a complete human at a cellular level. The potential power of distributed computing is well demonstrated at the website www. For a more technical presentation of all the topics discussed here, please refer to: Kolston, P.

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