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By W. Copper. Brigham Young University Idaho.

Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc discount 250 mg antabuse free shipping medicine 832. The information used is reasonably well structured and treatment is often medication antabuse 250mg cheap medicine interactions. In half of the cases videoconferencing was found to work satisfactorily, however, it did not reduce the number of patients that were eventually sent to the hospital. Thus, the relatively cheap e-mail system in internal medicine yielded a better return on investment than the costly videoconferencing system in orthopedic surgery. M anaging Implicit Knowledge in M edicine: Challenge for Shared Knowledge The limits of transferring knowledge as well as managing it only the basis of rational view of man has proved to be inconsistent with the reality of medical experts in many ways (Ferlie, Wood, & Fitzgerald, 1999; Patel, Arocha, & Kaufman, 1999). Medical profession- als produce a great amount of knowledge, which a doctor has but is unable to articulate or quantify easily. In frame of transferring technology managing knowledge refers more explicit than implicit knowledge. To be more precise, most of medical experts transfer more data than practical know-how to each other. The problems with sharing knowledge among a specific districts of medicine rises from the fact that every each of doctor attach a different meanings to data on the basis of their experiences of previous patients. However, studies of social construction, learning and tacit knowledge gives us a opportunity to approach the dilemma in promising way (Argyris, 1999; Berger & Luckmann, 1966; Dixon, 1994; Koskinen, 2001; Polanyi, 1966; Polanyi & Prosch, 1975; Sternberg & Horvarth, 1999). It is commonly accepted scholars that are two basic types of knowledge: explicit knowledge that can be verbalized, such as knowledge of facts and concepts; and implicit knowledge that cannot be made verbal, such as intuition and knowledge of procedures (Patel et al. Even if the conventional synonym of implicit knowledge is tacit knowledge, some of scholars use the concept of tacit meaning structures as well (cf. Tacit knowledge, by definition, refers to the inarticulate aspects or meaning structures that cannot be taught explicitly and therefore are only learnt via direct experience (Dixon, 1994; Patel et al. According to Polanyi and Prosch (1975) textbooks of medicine are so much empty talk in the absence of personal, that tacit knowledge of their subject matter. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Towards Knowledge Intensive Inter-Organizational Systems in Healthcare 279 of medical expertise in order to understand the role that the acquisition of tacit knowledge plays in competent and expert performance. According to them intensive care decision- making is characterized by a rapid, serial evaluation of options leafing to immediate action. In this real-time decision-making, the reasoning is schema-driven in a forward direction toward action with minimal interference or justification (ibid. Practically this means that doctors are tend to attach meaning to data more on the basis of their experience than logical interpretation of facts. On the other hand we may say that the scientific knowledge is in part socially constructed in different ways in a case of general practitioner who is sending data compared with medical expertise who is interpreting it (cf. Therefore managing knowledge should be always understood in the terms of socially construction reality among a certain group of professionals. The importance of tacit knowledge in decision-making is proved to be more important than explicit knowledge (Leprohon & Patel, 1995). Managing the tacit knowledge may easily sound the answer for the problems of electronic referring system. However, the tacit knowledge is also the issue of cooperation between medical professionals. Clinical professionals will retain a monopoly of knowledge as far as professionals are forced to compete each other in terms of budget and resources (cf. Barriers to open communication between different medical experts is understandable when the goal of medicine is not integrated (cf. Findings of Smith and Preston (1996) are pretty common: senior management have problems regarding the interface between junior doctors and other professional groups. An elite of professional workers secures easily a high degree of autonomy for itself on the basis of possession of expertise (Ferlie et al. However, tacit knowledge is said to be the primary basis for effective management, and the basis for its deterioration (Argyris, 1999; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). Understand- ing the management of knowledge in the frame of rational man leads us easily situation where the benefits of electronic referring system are limited (cf. Knowledge M anagement Issues for Clinical Applications When utilizing applications of information technology in product-line orientated orga- nization aspects such as the level of utilization becomes important. For example if only every third salesman in a company types his or hers orders in a given database the benefits of using an enterprise resource planning system barely exists at the shop floor.

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This study evaluated the effectiveness “Magnets that Move Moods: New Treatment for Depression buy antabuse 250mg symptoms 6 days post embryo transfer. A procedure called repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation Kim Sharp has shown promise in treating this condition generic antabuse 500 mg amex medicine 853. Odle patients with depression had a lower relapse rate than did those using electroconvulsive therapy. Unlike electrocon- vulsive therapy, patients using magnetic therapy did not suf- fer from seizures, memory lapses, or impaired thinking. In 2002, more than 2,000 patients had undergone Magnolia transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for treatment of depression at the University of South Carolina with promis- Description ing preliminary results. TMS is less shocking to the brain Many species of magnolia are used in both Eastern than electroconvulsive therapy. The Chinese have used the bark the use of magnets for therapy of essential tremors. By of Magnolia officinalis, called in Chinese hou po since using a control group with sham repetitive TMS, the re- the first century A. The pun- therapy are still under study and are not approved by the gent aromatic bark is used in healing. There is no training or certification required for ad- Chinese herbalists also use the bud of Magnolia lil- ministering magnetic therapy. Note that in Chinese herbalism, magnolia GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1273 Magnolia flower. These studies are in their preliminary stages, how- with different properties and uses. Other species of magnolia are used by Western Magnolia flower, xin yi hua, is associated with the herbalists. Its main function magnolia include white bay, beaver tree, swamp sas- is to open the airway. Little scientific research has been safras (not to be confused with other forms of sassafras done on the magnolia flower. The New World species of magnolia are smaller than their Asian counter- Magnolia bark and root are also used occasionally in parts, ranging in height from 6-30 ft (2-10 m). Both the Western herbalism, although they are not major healing bark and the root are used in Western herbalism. At one time, magnolia root was used to treat rheumatism, and was thought to be superior to quinine in General use treating chills and fever. Russ- ian herbalists use an oil extracted from the flowers and In Chinese herbalism, magnolia bark, hou po, is as- young leaves to treat hair loss and as an antiseptic on skin sociated with the stomach, lungs, spleen, and large intes- wounds. It is used to treat menstrual cramps, abdominal flower is a minor remedy for asthma and fainting. Injections of magnolia bark extract are Little recent scientific research has been done on said to cause muscle relaxation. It is also used in formu- magnolia in the West; however, Asian researchers have las to treat coughing and asthma. As of 2002, honokiol has attracted interest for its ders thought to move upward in the body. In addition, it is being studied for its Research suggests that compounds found in magno- ability to induce apoptosis, or cell self-destruction, in lia bark may have mild antibacterial and antifungal prop- lung cancer cells. In Japan, honokiol is considered a 1274 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 useful anxiolytic; herbal preparations containing honoki- ol are prescribed as mild tranquilizers. Preparations Anxiolytic—A medication or preparation given as Magnolia bark is most commonly used in the fol- a tranquilizer. Magnolia is thought to contain certain chemicals that cause • Agastache: for treatment of stomach flu and gastroin- the apoptosis of cancer cells. Honokiol—A compound derived from magnolia • Apricot seed and linum: for treatment of chronic con- that is used in some Japanese herbal preparations stipation and hemorrhoids. Honokiol may also be use- • Bupleurum, inula and cyperus: for treatment of stress- ful in treating lung cancer. All these formulas can be made into teas or are com- mercially available as pills or capsules. In addition, allergic re- actions to the pollen from magnolia trees are not unusual. Frey, PhD Interactions In Chinese herbalism, both magnolia bark and flow- Maharishi Ayurveda see Ayurvedic ers are often used in conjunction with other herbs with medicine no reported interactions.

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